A new study has revealed the extent to which women are being punished for making legal threats to porn stars.
Researchers have identified hundreds of instances of porn stars being held responsible for criminal offenses, ranging from criminal trespassing to assault.
“This is a big deal,” said Rachel Bostic, a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles School of Law.
“These are women who have been hurt by the content of porn.
They’re being held accountable for their actions, and they’ve been making these claims for years, and their legal rights have been violated.”
PornHub is one of the biggest names in the industry, with tens of millions of users.
But in the past year, it has been accused of paying women to have sex with other men, including by sending them emails that threatened to expose them to criminal charges.
“If they have done something that’s against the law, the legal system can take action,” said Bostic.
The problem has been magnified by a new trend known as “revenge porn,” in which women use revenge porn to get men to pay them for sex.
A survey by a company called Pornhub found that more than 80% of the 1,100 users who had made the claims were men.
Bostic said revenge porn is often used to get other women to come forward with accusations against men they don’t want to have an affair with.
And she said she believes the new study is the first of its kind.
“It’s just the tip of the iceberg,” she said.
The study, published online by the Journal of Law and Social Policy, surveyed more than 300 women from the U.S., U.K., Canada, Germany, Spain, Australia, Germany and New Zealand who had accused people in their private lives of rape, stalking or sexual assault.
They were asked about the type of person or group they had accused and whether they believed they had been harmed.
The women also were asked if they had made threats against their male partners, and the types of people they had alleged to have assaulted.
The researchers found that of the women who had done the threats, 62% said they had done it in retaliation for a perceived sexual or physical assault, while 37% said that had happened when they had had consensual sex.
“We saw the same pattern with our respondents,” Bostic said.
“They were talking about women in their personal lives, and it was mostly men who were threatening to hurt women.”
Bostic and her co-authors said the study has several limitations, including that it is not a randomized trial and that the sample size was small.
Still, the researchers believe it shows that women are in fact being punished.
“What it does show is that the laws are being enforced in ways that are discriminatory and punitive,” she added.
“Women who make threats of rape and assault are punished more severely than women who don’t,” said Dr. Michelle M. DeCarlo, a University of Illinois law professor and one of Bostic’s co-author’s.
“That’s a very disturbing trend.”
The researchers said that it could take years to determine how many women are facing these penalties, because the laws vary from state to state.
The studies focus on revenge porn, but they also include a survey of other forms of online harassment, such as stalking and sexual harassment.
The research, which was published in the journal Gender & Society, is one in a series of studies that the group is planning.
“I hope this study provides some insight into the issue of revenge porn and other forms and types of online sexual harassment that women face in the workplace and the online spaces that they use,” DeCarla said.
She added that the studies provide important data on the nature of online threats and harassment, because women’s experience is often different from the experiences of men.
“Many of the things that are happening online are not only not taken seriously by the legal systems but can even be very detrimental to women’s ability to report sexual harassment,” DeCarylos said.